Characterization Of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Coconut Shell for The Production of Fuel Briquettes

Main Article Content

Gila Layindeh Manga
Adekunle Moshood Abioyec
Jibril Mohammed
Markus Markus


Briquettes, Characterization, Carbonization, Coconut shell, Oil palm empty fruit bunch


In this study, characterization of agricultural waste (oil palm empty fruit bunch, coconut shell and cassava peel) was done before and after carbonization. Briquettes were produced from the carbonized OPEFB and CS blends with CP as binder. Muffle furnace was used for the carbonization of both biomass; CS was carbonized at 7000C at 60 minutes residence time and OPEFB was carbonized at 4000C at 30 minutes residence time. Proximate analysis showed that raw OPEFB and CS had volatile matter of 70.89 and 63.76wt% which indicates easy ignition but high burning rate. They had low fixed carbon of 18.13 and 17.60wt% for OPEFB and CS respectively which accounted for their low calorific value of 19.61 and 20.70 MJ/kg respectively. Ultimate analysis showed insignificant nitrogen and sulfur content from both biomass. The carbonized OPEFB and CS showed improved Calorific value of 28.38 and 27.91 MJ/kg respectively. This was as a result of devolatilization of the biomass with enrichment of carbon from 45.04 to 69.28wt% for OPEFB and 48.02 to 75.50wt% for CS. The briquettes formed had a mean calorific value, compressive strength, burning rate and density of 27.40 MJ/kg, 2.138 N/mm2, 1.110 g/min and 912.26 kg/m3respectively. With these performance indicators, these selected agricultural wastes biomass could be helpful for production of fuel alternatives for domestic heating in developing and underdeveloped countries that produce such waste.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 75 | PDF Downloads 47


[1] Consilium Europa. (n.d). Impact of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on the Markets: EU Response. Retrieved January 21, 2023, from
[2] Dulcie Lee & Joseph Lee. (2021). G7 to Agree Tough measures on Burning Coal to Tackle Climate Change.
[3] Dave Levitan & Nikhil Kumar. (2022). Here’s How Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine is Fueling a Comeback for Coal.
[4] World Economic Forum. (2022). Six ways Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine has Reshaped the Energy World. Energy Transition. https://www/
[5] Rainforest mongabay. (n.d.). Nigeria: Demographic Data. Retrieved December 22, 2022, from
[6] Hussaini M, Hamza A.D, & Usman M. (2018). Assessment of consumption rate of solid biomass fuels and the consequent environmental impact in Maiduguri metropolis. Open Journal of Air Polution. Vol. 7 No. 1. DOI: 10.4236/ojap.2018.71003.
[7] Lars Kamer. (2022). Agriculture in Nigeria – Statistics and Facts. Statista. https://www/
[8] Knoema. (n.d). Coconut Production in Nigeria. Retrieved January 21, 2023, from
[9] Yussof S. (2006). Renewable energy from palm oil innovation on effective utilization of waste.Journal of Cleaner Production 2006; 22:87-93.
[10] Bello SA, Agunsoye JO. Adebisi JA, Kolawole FO, & Hassan SB. (2016). Physical Properties of Coconut shell Nanoparticles. Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol. 12, No. 1, pp 63-79.
[11] McKendry, P. (2002). Energy Production from Biomass (Part 1): Overview of Biomass. Bioresource Technology, 83(1), 37–46.
[12] Saidur R, Abdelaziz EA, Demirbas A, Hossain M S, Mekhilef S. (2011). A Review on Biomass as a Fuel for Boilers. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(5), 2262–2289.
[13] Jenkins B, Baxter L, Miles T, Miles, T. (1998). Combustion Properties of Biomass. FuelProcessing Technology, 54(1), 17–46.
[14] ASTM D2444-16. (2016). Standard Test Methods for Direct Moisture Content Measurement of Wood and Wood-Based Materials; ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
[15] Verma R.M. (2018). Analytical Chemistry; Theory and Practice. Third edition. Publishers & Distibutors Pvt Ltd, India.
[16] Vassilev, S. V., Baxter, D., Andersen, L. K. & Vassileva, C. G. (2010). An Overview of the Chemical Composition of Biomass. Fuel, 89(5), 913–933.
[17] Fahmi, R., Bridgwater, A. V., Darvell, L. I., Jones, J. M., Yates, N., Thain, S., et al. (2007). The Effect of Alkali Metals on Combustion and Pyrolysis of Lolium and Festuca Grasses, Switchgrass and Willow. Fuel, 86(10–11), 1560–1569.
[18] McKendry, P. (2002). Energy Production from Biomass (Part 1): Overview of Biomass. Bioresource Technology, 83(1), 37–46.
[19] Chukwuneke JL, Umej AC, Sinebe JE, & Fakiyesi OB. (2020). Optimization of Composition of Selected Biomass for Briquette Production. Universal Journal Of Mechanical Engineering 8(4):227-236. DOI: 10.13189/ujme.2020.080408.
[20] Agomuo UC, Evuti AM, Ozigis II, & Abba AH. (2019). Optimization of Calorific Value of Briquettes from mixture of Rice Husk and Sawdust biomass using Taguchi Approach. Nigerian Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 5, No. 2 (103-110).
[21] Oluwaseyi KF, Temiloluwa OA, Ademola OA, & Clement AO. (2021). Characterization of Briquettes from Forest Waste: Optimization Approach. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 67 2021(3):138-147. http://doi.or/10.17221/6.2021-RAE.