Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil as An Alternative Energy Source – A Review

Main Article Content

Herawati Budiastuti
Nira Aulia Hanifah
Devita Utami Mardiani
Haryadi Haryadi
Rusdianasari Rusdianasari
Ahmad Fudholi

Keywords

biodiesel, rubber seed oil, operation condition, antioxidant

Abstract

Biodiesel is one of alternative energies that can be used to overcome problem caused by limited amount of fossil fuels reserved. Biodiesel can be made from rubber seed oil that has high potencies in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seed is quite much with more than 3-million-hectare rubber plantation area. The production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil has been carried out by several researchers using various methods. Therefore, this study was conducted as a review to obtain optimum operation conditions and effect of antioxidant addition in biodiesel production. Production methods of biodiesel from rubber seed oil observed in this study are esterification-transesterification, one stage transesterification, and in situ transesterification methods. Types of antioxidant added to biodiesel from rubber seed oil observed are TBHQ, D-TBHQ, BHA, BHT, PG, and OG. Esterification-transesterification was chosen as the most effective method in producing biodiesel with a minimum yield of 96.4%. Antioxidant addition of TBHQ with 1000 × 10-6 (ω) dosage was selected as the most effective to increase biodiesel induction period to become 6.41 hours, fulfilling the SNI 7182-2015 standard, which is minimum of 6 hours. Standard used as the reference for observing biodiesel parameters is SNI 7182-2015.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 38 | PDF Downloads 23

References

[1] Directorate General of Mineral and Coal, "Minyak Bumi Mendominasi Bauran Energi Primer Dunia Hingga 2050," 23 October 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.esdm.go.id/id/media-center/arsip-berita/minyak-bumi-mendominasi-bauran-energi-primer-dunia-hingga-2050. [Accessed 18 August 2020].
[2] Soemargono and E. Mulyadi, "Proses Produksi Biodiesel Berbasis Biji Karet," Jurnal Rekayasa Proses, vol. 5, no. 2, 2011.
Seed Oil," American Jornal of Energy Science, vol. 3, no. 3, 2016.
[3] Nazaruddin and Paimin, Asal Mula Tanaman Karet di Indonesia, Jakarta: Gramedia, 2005.
[4] D. A. Setyawardhani, S. Distantina, H. Henfiana and A. S. Dewi, "Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Asam Lemak Jenuh Minyak Biji Karet," Seminar Rekayasa Kimia dan Proses, 2010.
[5] G. N. Andayana, "Pengaruh Pengeringan Terhadap Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Biji Karet," Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, 2008.
[6] N. Ulya and E. D. Siswani, "Sintesis Biodiesel Dari Minyak Biji Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis) Pada Variasi Suhu Transesterifikasi Dan Rasio (Metanol/Minyak) Pada Waktu 60 Menit," Jurnal Kimia Dasar, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 120-126, 2017.
[7] A. Budiman, R. D. Kusumaningtyas, Y. S. Pradana and N. A. Lestari, Biodiesel Bahan Baku Proses dan Teknologi, Yogyakarta: UGM Press, 2017.
[8] R. Karima, "Kualitas Minyak Biji Karet Sebagai Minyak Pangan Alternatif Pasca Penghilangan HCN," Jurnal Riset Industri Hasil Hutan, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 17-22, 2015.
[9] S. Arita, R. D. Ariani and S. Fatimah, "Pengaruh Waktu Esterifikasi Terhadap Proses Pembentukan Metil Ester (Biodiesel) dari Minyak Biji Karet (Rubber Seed Oil)," Jurnal Teknik Kimia Universitas Sriwijaya, vol. 1, no. 16, pp. 55-60, 2009.
[10] J. V. Gerpen, B. Shanks, R. Pruszko, D. Clements and G. Knothe, Biodiesel Production Technology, Colorado: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2004.
[11] C. Amelia, P. Andini, S. Adhiawardana, T. Prasetyani, H. Budiastuti and S. Widarti, "Sifat Ketahanan Oksidatif dan Sifat Sifik Biodiesel dari Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) Menggunakan Antioksidan X," Seminar Nasional Rekayasa Proses Industri, vol. I, 2017.
[12] Satriana, Supardan and M. Dani, "Kinetic Study of Esterification of Free Fatty Acid in Low Grade Crude Palm Oil using Sulphuric Acid," Asean Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, 2008.
[13] A. Ramadhas, S. Jayaraj and C. Muraleedharan, "Biodiesel Production from High FFA Rubber Seed Oil," Fuel, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 335-340, 2005.
[14] M. Hemmer, "Rapsöl als Isolier- und Kühlmedium in Transformatoren," Univ Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, 2004.
[15] R. Manurung, "Transesterifikasi Minyak Nabati," Jurnal Teknologi Press, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 47-52, 2006.
[16] N. Vedaraman, P. Sukumar, G. Nagarajan, B. V. Ramabrahmam and K. C. Velappan, "Methyl Ester of Sal oil (Shorea Robusta) As A Subtitute to Diesel Fuel - A Study on Its Preparation, Performance, and Emission in Direct Injection Diesel Engine," Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 282-288, 2012.
[17] H. Synder, "Literature Review as A Research Methodology : An Overview and Guidelines," Journal of Business Research, vol. 104, pp. 333-339, 2019.
[18] R. D. Kusumaningtyas and A. Bachtiar, "Sintesis Biodiesel dari Minyak Biji Karet dengan Variasi Suhu dan Konsentrasi KOH untuk Tahapan Transesterifikasi," Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan , vol. 1, no. 2, 2012.
[19] P. Thaiyasuit, I. Worapun and K. Pianthong, "Acid Esterification-Alkaline Transesterification Process for Methyl Ester Production from Crude Rubber Seed Oil," Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 81-88, 2012.
[20] R. M. Devi, R. Subadevi, S. P. Raj and M. Sivakumar, "Comparative Studies on Biodiesel from Rubber Seed Oil Using Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts," International Journal of Green Energy, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1215-1221, 2015.
[21] Rusmaningtyas, I. Rohmah and E. D. Siswani, "Pemanfaatan Minyak Biji Karet (Hevea brasiliensis) Sebagai Bahan Baku Biodiesel pada Variasi Suhu Transesterifikasi dan Rasio (Metanol/Minyak) pada Waktu 120 Menit," Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, 2017.
[22] Salni, P. L. Hariani and H. Marisa, "Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristics of Seed, Oil, and Biodiesel," International Journal of Renewable Energy, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 157-163, 2017.
[23] E. D. Siswani, S. Kristianingrum and Suyanta, "Various Conditions of Transesterification on Biodiesel Synthesised from Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliens) Using KOH as Catalyst," in ICRIEMS Proceeding, Semarang, 2017.
[24] D. R. Wicakso, A. N. Najma and D. A. Retnowati, "Crude Biodiesel Synthesis from Rubber Seed Oil," Konversi, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 21-27, 2018.
[25] A. V. S. L. S. Bharadwaj, M. Singh, S. Niju, K. M. M. S. Begum and N. Anantharaman, "Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil Using Calcium Oxide Derived from Eggshell as Catalyst - Optimization and Modelling Studies," Green Process Synth, vol. 8, pp. 430-442, 2019.
[26] J. Gimbun, N. Hidayah, S. Ali, C. C. S. C. Kanwal, L. A. Shah, Ghazali, C. K. Cheng and S. Nurdin, "Biodiesel Production From Rubber Seed Oil Using a Limestone Based Catalyst," Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry, vol.2, no. 4B, pp. 138-141, 2012. DOI:10.4236/ampc.2012.24B036.
[27] A. Buasri and V. Loryuenyong, "Continuous Production of Biodiesel from Rubber Seed Oil Using a Packed Bed Reactor with BaCl2 Impregnated CaO as Catalyst," Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 320-330, 2018.
[28] V. Winoto and N. Yoswathana, "Optimization of Biodiesel Production Using Nanomagnetic CaO-Based Catalysts with Subcritical Methanol Transesterification of Rubber Seed Oil," Energies, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1-13, 2019.
[29] K. J. Harrington and C. D'Arcy-Evans, "Transesterification In Situ of Sunflower Seed Oil," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 314-318, 1985.
[30] Widayat, A. D. K. Wibowo and Hadiyanto, "Study on Prouction Process of Biodiesel from Rubber Seed (Hevea Brasiliensis) by In Situ (Trans)esterification Method with Acid Catalyst," Energy Procedia, vol. 32, pp. 64-73, 2013.
[31] B. A. Abdulkadir, Y. Uemura, A. Ramli, N. B. Osman, K. Kusakabe and T. Kai, "Production of Biodiesel from Rubber Seeds (Hevea Brasiliensis) by In situ Transesterification Method," Journal of The Japan Insitute of Energy, vol. 94, pp. 763-768, 2014.
[32] A. M. E. N. Rahim and I. Prihatiningtyas, "Pengaruh Katalis Asam dan Basa Terhadap Biodiesel yang Dihasilkan Pada Proses Trans(esterifikasi) In situ Biji Karet (Havea brasiliensis)," in Prosiding Seminar Nasional ReTII, Yogyakarta, 2017.
[33] M. Canakci and J. V. Gerpen, "Biodiesel Production From Oils and Fats With High Free Fatty Acids," Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1429-1436, 2001.
[34] G. Hincapié, F. Mondragón and D. López, "Conventional and In Situ Transesterification of Castor Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production," Fuel, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 1618-1623, 2011.
[35] S. A. Awaluddin and W. S. Nelvia, "Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Produksi Biodiesel dari Minyak Sawit Mentah Menggunakan Katalis Padat Kalsium Karbonat yang Dipijarkan," Jurnal Natur Indonesia, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 129-134, 2011.
[36] M. Mittlebach and C. Remschmidt, Biodiesel the Comprehensive Handbook 3ed, Austria: Martin Mittlebach, 2006.
[37] M. P. Utomo and E. W. Laksono, "Tinjauan Umum Tentang Deaktivasi Katalis pada Reaksi Katalisis Heterogen," in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Penelitian, Pendidikan, dan Penerapan MIPA, Yogyakarta, 2007.
[38] J. Boro, L. J. Konwar, A. J. Thakur and D. Deka, "Ba Doped CaO Derived from Waste Shells of T Striatula (TS-CaO) as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production," Fuel, vol. 129, pp. 182-187, 2014.
[39] S. E. Mahesh, A. Ramanathan, K. M. M. S. Begum and A. Narayanan, "Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using KBr Impregnated CaO as Catalyst," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 91, pp. 442-450, 2015.
[40] D. Darnoko, "Continuous Production of Methyl Esthers from Oil Palm and Recovery of Betacarotene by Membrane Technology," University of Illinois, Urbana, 1999.
[41] B. M. Johri, P. S. Srivastava and A. P. Raste, "Endosperm Culture," International Review of Citology, vol. 11B, pp. 157-182, 1980.
[42] M. A. Fangrui and M. A. Hanna, "Biodiesel Production," Bioresource Technology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 1-15, 1999.
[43] J. S. Lee and S. Saka, "Biodiesel Production by Heterogenous Catalysts and Supercritical Technologies," Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 19, 2010.
[44] I. A. Musa, "The Effects of Alcohol to Oil Molar Ratios and The Type of Alcohol on Biodiesel Production Using Transesterification Process," Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol. 25, no. 1, 2016.
[45] S. V. Ghadge and H. Raheman, "Biodiesel Production from Mahua (Madhuca indica) Oil Having High Free Fatty Acids," Biomass Bioenergy, vol. 28, pp. 601-605, 2005.
[46] M. Berrios and R. L. Skelton, "Comparison of Purification Methods for Biodiesel," Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 459-465, 2008.
[47] X. Gui, S. Chen and Z. Yun, "Continuous Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil and Methanol Using a Column Reactor Packed with Calcined Sodium SIlicate Base Catalyst," Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 24, pp. 499-505, 2016.
[48] M. C. Hsiao, C. C. Lin and Y. H. Chang, "Microwave Irradiation Assisted Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel Catalyzed by Nanopowder Calcium Oxide," Fuel, vol. 90, pp. 1963-1967, 2011.
[49] J. A. Key and D. W. Ball, "Intoductory Chemistry 1st Canadian Edition," in Chapter 17 - Kinetics (Factors that Affect Rate of Reactor), https://opentextbc.ca/introductorychemistry/, 2014.
[50] D. Darnoko and M. Cheryan, "Continuous Production of Palm Methyl Ester," Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 1269-1272, 2000.
[51] E. C. Abbah, G. I. Nwandikom, C. C. Egwuonwu and N. R. Nwakuba, "Effect of Reaction Temperature on the Yield of Biodiesel from Neem Seed Oil,” American Journal of Energy Science, vol. 3 no. 3, 2016.
[52] Sutiah, K. S. Firdausi and W. S. Budi, "Studi Kualitas Minyak Goreng dengan Parameter Viskositas dan Indeks Bias," BERKALA Jurnal Fisika Teori, Eksperimen, dan Fisika Aplikasi, vol. 11, no. 2, 2008.
[53] S. S. Damayanti and E. S. Murtini, "Inovasi Susu Almond dengan Substitusi Sari Kecambah Kedelai Sebagai Sumber Protein Nabati," Jurnal Pangan dan Argoindustri, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 70-77, 2018.
[54] R. A. L. ALfianita, "Pengaruh Variasi Waktu dan Suhu Terhadap Rendemen Biodiesel dari Minyak Jelantah dengan Katalis Abu Layang Batubara (Fly Ash) Melalui Proses Transesterifikasi," Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta, 2019.

[55] R. D. N. Affandi, T. R. Aruan, Taslim and Iriany, "Produksi Biodiesel dari Lemak Sapi dengan Proses Transesterifikasi dengan Katalis Basa NaOH," Jurnal Teknik Kimia USU, vol. 2, no. 1, 2013.
[56] T. T. Kivevele, M. M. Mbarawa, A. Bereczky, T. Laza and J. Madarasz, "Impact of Antioxidant Additives on the Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Produced from Croton Megalocarpus Oil," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 1244-1248, 2011.
[57] A. Anggraini, "Pengaruh Jenis dan Konsentrasi Antioksidan terhadap Ketahanan Oksidasi Biodiesel dari Jarak Pagar (Jathropa curcas, L)," Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, 2007.
[58]


[59]


[60] L. She, L. Ming, B. G. Rong, W. Hua, D. Wei, S. Chengshuai and W. Zheng, "Improvement of Oxidative Stability of Rubber Seed Oil With Additives," The Chinese Journal of Process Engineering, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 145-150, 2014.
Rusdianasari, A. Sarif, M. Yerizam, M.S. Yusi, L. Kalsum, and Y. Bow, "Effect of Catalyst on the Quality of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Induction Heating," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1500, 012052, 2020.
S. Yunsari, Rusdianasari, and A. Husaini, "CPO Based Biodiesel Production using Microwave Assisted Method," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1167, 012036, 2019.