International Journal Applied Technology Research <p>The International Journal of Applied Technology Research (IJATR), an academic journal in engineering and technology, was published by Bandung State Polytechnic, Indonesia. This OPEN ACCESS Journal aims to encourage and stimulate the exchange of discourse among professionals and academics worldwide on issues of applied technology research.</p> en-US <div id="main-content" class="page page_submissions"> <div class="copyright-notice about_data"> <p><strong>Author’s Warranties<br></strong>The author warrants that the article is original, written by the stated author(s), has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author(s).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Copyright&nbsp;<br></strong>Authors retain copyright and grant to Publishers, as a publication condition. The manuscripts licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the work for any purpose, even commercially with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in IJATR.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>User Rights</strong><br><span data-preserver-spaces="true">The International Journal of Applied Technology Research (IJATR) objective is to disseminate articles published as freely as possible. Under the&nbsp;</span><a class="editor-rtfLink" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0),</span></a><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;this journal permits users to share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the work for any purpose, even commercially with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in IJATR. Users will also need to attribute authors and this journal to distributing works in the journal. Authors can enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in IJATR. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and earlier and greater citation of published work.</span></p> </div> </div> (Prof. Dr. Ir. Kasni Sumeru) (Maisevli Harika) Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Design of Hybrid Energy System for Railway Application (Case Study of People Mover System in Doha, Qatar) <p>This paper presents the conceptual design of hybrid energy system used in railway application. The hybrid system with batteries and energy storage double-layer capacitor is a new technology that is used under extreme climatic conditions, especially in daytime temperature up to 50°C, high relative humidity, dust and heavy rain. It is a combination of double-layer capacitors and traction batteries. It draws power both externally and from braking energy. In order to reduce CO2 emissions to the environment, energy-saving drives and energy storage are used. Also, in public transportation, Sitras Hybrid Energy System (HES), hybrid energy storage system for trams, has been developed which combines a double-layer capacitor with a nickel-metal hydride battery. The storage not only allows driving without overhead lines, it also enables braking energy to be recovered. A reliable cooling system is required to ensure that the performance of the battery and the capacitor storage is maintained for as long as possible. The results of finite element model showed the robustness for railway application. The computational model refers to proof of static and dynamic strength in accordance with EN12663. A cooling system for a tram using this innovative technology was designed and qualified for the "Qatar Education City People Mover System (PMS)" project.</p> Sri Nugroho, Luthfi Muhammad Mauludin, Togar Sirait, mujiman mujiman, Ahmad Sofyan, Toto Tohir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 03 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization Of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Coconut Shell for The Production of Fuel Briquettes <p>In this study, characterization of agricultural waste (oil palm empty fruit bunch, coconut shell and cassava peel) was done before and after carbonization. Briquettes were produced from the carbonized OPEFB and CS blends with CP as binder. Muffle furnace was used for the carbonization of both biomass; CS was carbonized at 7000C at 60 minutes residence time and OPEFB was carbonized at 4000C at 30 minutes residence time. Proximate analysis showed that raw OPEFB and CS had volatile matter of 70.89 and 63.76wt% which indicates easy ignition but high burning rate. They had low fixed carbon of 18.13 and 17.60wt% for OPEFB and CS respectively which accounted for their low calorific value of 19.61 and 20.70 MJ/kg respectively. Ultimate analysis showed insignificant nitrogen and sulfur content from both biomass. The carbonized OPEFB and CS showed improved Calorific value of 28.38 and 27.91 MJ/kg respectively. This was as a result of devolatilization of the biomass with enrichment of carbon from 45.04 to 69.28wt% for OPEFB and 48.02 to 75.50wt% for CS. The briquettes formed had a mean calorific value, compressive strength, burning rate and density of 27.40 MJ/kg, 2.138 N/mm2, 1.110 g/min and 912.26 kg/m3respectively. With these performance indicators, these selected agricultural wastes biomass could be helpful for production of fuel alternatives for domestic heating in developing and underdeveloped countries that produce such waste.</p> Gila Layindeh Manga, Adekunle Moshood Abioyec, Jibril Mohammed, Markus Markus ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Fermentation Time on the Production of Ambon Banana Weevil Waste Bioethanol <p>The increase in population in Indonesia is directly proportional to the increase in the use of vehicles which results in an increase in fuel demand. The amount of fossil fuels continues to decrease and cannot be renewed, so alternative energy is needed, one of which is bioethanol. This study aims to make bioethanol from banana weevil waste, to determine the effect of fermentation time on the concentration of banana weevil bioethanol and to determine the concentration of bioethanol after going through the purification stage. The production of banana weevil bioethanol begins with the process of cutting the banana weevil which is then mashed with the help of water and then squeezed and starch is obtained and then hydrolyzed with the addition of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase enzymes for further anaerobic fermentation with the help of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a concentration of 25%. In this study, variations of fermentation time were carried out for 5, 7, 9, and 10 days. The best fermentation time was obtained from 9 days of fermentation, where the conversion of glucose to bioethanol was 51%. The results of the analysis using a refractometer showed that the concentration of bioethanol obtained was 16.20% (v) which was obtained from fermentation for 9 days and purification using a rotary evaporator at a pressure of 360 mbar and a temperature of 50<sup>0</sup>C.</p> Herawati - Budiastuti, Salma Indana Zulfa, Nova Sihombing, haryadi haryadi, Emma Hermawati Muhari, Bambang Soeswanto, Endang Widiastuti, Pratap Pullammanappallil ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 06 Apr 2023 08:55:56 +0000 Effect of Process Variables and Zeolite Adsorbent in Coffee Bean Drying <p>Green coffee beans to be stored for transportation must meet storage quality standards, especially the maximum moisture content of 12.5%, so the drying process must be carried out to achieve quality standards, but still economical. The study aims to obtain optimum operating conditions on the drying of Arabica-type coffee beans using a fluidized bed dryer assisted by zeolite adsorbents in a separated fluidized bed prior to heating, as well as calculating the energy consumption of blowers and air heater. The operating conditions were varied, namely air flow rate of 1.79 – 2.29 m/s, air temperature of 45 <sup>o </sup>C, 50 <sup>o </sup>C, and 55 <sup>o </sup>C, zeolite adsorbent mass of 150 g, 175 g, and 200 g.&nbsp; The coffee beans quality tests carried out were the moisture, carbohydrates, protein content, and the visual appearance of the beans. The results show that the optimum drying process of coffee beans resulting a minimum protein and carbohydrate damage are the air velocity of 2.1 m/s, air temperature of 55°C, drying time of 240 minutes, and zeolite adsorbent mass of 150 grams, with energy consumption of 5.02 KWH (equivalent to 180 MJ/T). The addition of zeolite as much as 150 grams, 175 grams, and 200 grams as adsorbent was able to reduce the relative humidity (R<sub>H</sub>) of air by 16.65%, 18.60%, and 21.17% respectively.&nbsp; The drying rate of coffee beans is mainly influenced by air temperature (more predominantly) than the adsorption of air humidity by zeolite.</p> Bambang Soeswanto, Ninik Lintang Edi Wahyuni, Ghusrina Prihandini, Yusuf Pratama, Taufik Akbar Firmansyah, Dewi Widyabudiningsih ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Fruit Ripening Level and Roasting Temperature on Robusta Coffee Bean Quality <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of roasting temperature on the chemical content of Robusta coffee at various levels of Robusta coffee maturity. The research will be conducted at roasting temperatures of 190℃, 200℃, 210℃, 220℃ and chemical content analysis is carried out bygravimetric method and UV-VIS spectrophotometry on fresh beans, green beans and coffee beans at each temperature variation and the maturity level of Robusta coffee. Maturity of coffee beans will be classified visually and use an RGB meter to help and facilitate the selection of coffee beans in accordance with the level of maturity. The variables taken and observed in the study are the temperature of the roasting process, the time required at the time of roasting, as well as the mass, chemical content and physical parameters of robusta coffee beans observed before and after the roasting process. Chemical content was observed in the form of water content, fat content, caffeine, and antioxidants, then the physical parameters observed were aroma, color, shape, taste, and characteristics of coffee beans at each level of robusta coffee fruit maturity. The results obtained value of the chemical content and organoleptic test at each level of maturity of the coffee fruit and roasting temperature variations because basically the roasting temperature will produce coffee beans that have their own characteristics and flavors. This study also determines the value of the mass transfer coefficient and heat transfer in the drying process by the roasting method.</p> Emma Hermawati Muhari, Rony Pasonang Sihombing, Yunus Tonapa Sarungu, Ari Marlina, Unung Leoanggraini, Tri Hariyadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Empty/Occupied States of Parking Slots in Multicamera system using Mask R-CNN Classifier <p>A fast growth of vehicles in big cities has an impact of arising road loads and difficulty of finding empty parking spaces. One solution to cope with the problem is to develop a parking management system which can provide useful information of available parking spaces to the potential users. This paper discusses about a new multicamera arrangement and the function to evaluate the empty/occupied states of the parking slots, as an alternative solution to the existing single camera system, The system adopted Mask R-CNN for its classifier, because of its capability to provide the polygon outputs for its detected objects, compared with the existing bounding box outputs provided by other classifiers. The proposed function has optimized the available information from all cameras, by considering the relative position of each camera to the parking spaces, and also capable of overcoming occlusion problem occurs in some cameras, The experiment shows that the capability of overcoming the occlusion problem has been validated, and its performance to evaluate the empty/occupied states of the parking slots was better than the single camera system to a certain threshold.</p> Hertog Nugroho, Ginanjar Suwasono Adi, Muhammad Khoer Afandi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Test Bench for Simulation Phase Fault and Ground Fault Analysis Protection Concept Using Symmetrical Components <p>Various laboratory experiment platforms have been developed to provide students with theoretical knowledge and practical experience. Understanding concepts related to the process for determining the design of protection settings requires practical experience, which can be achieved by repeated trials. In this paper, the mechanism of a ground fault in a medium voltage feeder is done using a simulator substation as a case study. This process must be carried out twice, once for the ground-fault relays protection based on residual currents and then repeated based on residual voltage. For further understanding of the electrical distribution network, the system will be operated at 20 kV on the primary and 380 V on the secondary. The model uses smaller nominal voltages consisting of 380 V on the primary and the secondary. The result of one phase fault protection mechanism works well at each point of interference, and voltage transformers are protected from overheating and damage. The lowest value of the single-phase to ground short circuit that occurs at the fault location at the farthest point of interference from the protection relay location is used for the threshold setting on the voltage relay. The one phase fault protection mechanism works well at each point of interference, and the voltage transformer is protected from overheating and damage. For residual current ground fault protection effective, the threshold setting of phase fault inverse time delay with threshold setting I&gt; is 1.5 ampere, and instantaneous I&gt;&gt; is 7.5 ampere. The effective threshold setting for residual ground fault protection wasUo&gt; = 22% dan UO&gt;&gt; = 33,2%.</p> Supriyanto Supriyanto, Heri Budi Utomo, Sunarto Sunarto, Siswoyo Siswoyo, Budi Setiadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 01 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000